29 Jun 2019





1.0       INTRODUCTION                                                                                         2

2.0       RESEARCH PROCESS                                                                                4

            3.1       The development of a research question                                            5
            3.2       Articulating a research question                                                         6
            3.3       Operational sing the research question                                               6
            3.4       Using market research to launch a new brand                                    7
            3.5       The purpose of market research                                                          7
            3.6       Methods and types of market research                                               8
            Literature Review 1                                                                                        10
            Literature Review 2                                                                                        12
            Literature Review 3                                                                                        13
            Literature Review 4                                                                                        15

            5.1       Definitions of Research Design                                                          16
            5.2       Differences between qualitative and quantitative                              17
            6.1       Quantitative data collection methods                                                 19
            6.2       Qualitative data collection methods                                                   20
            7.1       Identifying Data Types and Sources                                                   21
            7.2       Identifying Who Will Be Involved                                                    21
            7.3       Setting a Schedule                                                                              21
            7.4       Training Your Data Collectors                                                           22
            7.5       Pilot Testing Your Data Collection Processes                                    22
            7.6       Implementing the Data Collection                                                      23
            7.7       Provide Confidentiality                                                                      23
            7.8       Identify the Quantity of Service                                                         24
            7.9       Use Low Burden Methods                                                                  24       

8.0       CONCLUSIONS                                                                                           25

            REFERENCES                                                                                              27

Tesco Stores (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd. was incorporated since 29 November 2001, as a strategic business corporation between Tesco Plc UK and local conglomerate, Sime Darby Berhad of which the latter holds 30% from the total shares. Tesco Malaysia starts their operations in February 2002 with the grand opening of their first hypermarket in Puchong, Selangor.

Tesco Malaysia currently employs nearly 15,000 employees and operates in 40 stores and in two formats following the acquisition of the Makro Cash and Carry business in Malaysia in December 2006. These are:

  • Tesco Hypermarkets
The hypermarket format offers customers a complete one stop shopping for their needs from fresh food to groceries, from household needs to apparel. It carries more than 60,000 lines of products including nearly 3,000 own brand of products ranging from food to non-food items.

  • Tesco Extra Hypermarkets
The Tesco Extra format serves the needs of small businesses, families and individuals all under one roof by providing a comprehensive range of products and services focused for small businesses including bigger pack sizes, special trolleys and checkouts as well as a dedicated business development team to support small business owners with their orders.

Tesco Malaysia is the only Hypermarket to offers its own of loyalty card, which refund money to customers as many as 4 times a year. Tesco Clubcard and Biz Clubcard were introduced as a way to say thank you to customers by refunding their  money back to them. Clubcard has received a very overwhelming response from customers with nearly 2 million household members signed up to date. As of January 2014, Tesco have rewarded nearly RM20 million worth of Clubcard Cash Vouchers to the customers.

The purpose of this assignment is to provide an analysis of the situation of own brand and particularly Tesco brands in the Malaysia. The management of Tesco Stores Malaysia needs to know whether it would be feasible to introduce their own branded chilli sauce to the Malaysian consumers. The concept of house brands has been investigated in many studies and brands have been defined in different ways.

House brands can be perceived as a legal instrument, a logo, a company, shorthand, a risk reducer, and an identity system, an image in consumers’ minds, a value system, a personality, a relationship, an added value and an evolving entity. All of those categories are derived from different studies and reflect different points of view.

However, for the purpose of a research process study, perception of the house brand as complex information about attributes of the product, such as producer, price, shape or performance suits best. Nowadays, retailer own brands are thus to be found next to national brands in virtually every food category and some of them, including Tesco, have been developed to a form of standard brand in their own right . House branded products are simply described as “all merchandise sold under a retail store‘s private label”.

This unclear definition is then adopted by many other authors who characterize it as the “products retailers sell under their own names”. Terminology, in addition, is not stable and various terms, such as own brand, own label, private label, private brand and retailer‘s brand, are currently used to refer to this phenomenon.

Theoretically speaking, private brands or house brands can involve a broad scope of quite different products. Nonetheless, whatever they are called, these house brands have experienced significant image revolution and are no longer a synonym for cheap and poor quality imitations. The products sold under store name are now being constantly developed and innovated, since they have become a crucial tool to build customer loyalty and to differentiate the store from competitors.

2.0       RESEARCH PROCESS        

The research process usually involves a multistep process. Although the actual number of steps may vary, research must include the formulation and identification of a subject, the review of literature, planning a strategy, data collection, data analysis and writing a report.

The research process usually starts with interest in some cases the situation, object, or simply want to know something about the new product. Research is the information-gathering process required to answer certain questions and thereby help solve the problems faced by a person, company, organization or company. For information to be useful, it must be good. The process of obtaining information must be good. A good process is a specific or systematic research process is a must.

The steps in the research process are;

Figure 1: Steps in research process


            3.1       The development of a research question
            To research, we must develop a focus. This guidance takes the form of a "research question" that is the problem we want to explain, understand or make sense (Weick, 1996). After raising the issue and stressed the centrality of "research question", it is important to discuss this issue in detail. Develop and articulate a research question is the most important element in the research process, from this, many things follow. In the evaluation or assessment of a research project, if it is a postgraduate thesis, a doctorate or a piece of advice, be able to determine a question of coherent research well-articulated is critical. The research question encapsulates what research is about.

            However, a degree of realism needs to be applied to what can be achieved. In framing a research question, the ‘do-ability‘ of the project should always be considered. Many research questions are soon found to be over-ambitious or not practical. Many projects fail because the researcher cannot get access to the subject of their research. Unfortunately, this is a particular problem in management research as many organizations will not allow the researcher access to gather data.

            Why is the act of articulating a research question so important? Firstly, the research question is the focus of the piece of work, encapsulating in a statement what it is trying to be achieved. If there is uncertainty about the focus of the research, then a high quality piece of research cannot be undertaken. Furthermore, the way a research question is articulated will largely determine the methodology or approach to evidence collection and analysis that will be used. If a research question is not articulated clearly, the wrong approach to answering the research question may be chosen. Essentially, having defined what the research is trying to achieve will often shape how the research will need to proceed.

            3.2       Articulating a research question
            Given the centrality of the research question in the research process, it is essential that researchers understand how to frame and articulate a research question. The most common criticisms of research proposals are:
o   There is no clearly articulated research question at all
o   What is supposed to be the research question is articulated in a way that does not make this testable questions
o   The research question is articulated badly or it is wrongly formulated, and
o   The research question was unrealistic and could not be achieved.

By focusing on trying to understand or explain something, we will inevitably be asking questions beginning with phrases such as "How does….?"; Why does…..?"; What is the relationship between x and y?; and, "Given a particular theory, what will be the effect of doing x on y?" Questions of this type are research questions.

3.3       Operational sing the research question
In the previous section, we have developed a concise research question and articulating the research question in this way, we could easily see how we can implement the collection and analysis of evidence phases of the research process test our assumptions.

While the research question was now relatively clear, we still had work to do if we were to test the question of operational research. First, we had a number of concepts that we were interested in measuring (loyalty, motivation, morale, commitment and a sense of job security), but before we can measure, we need to be clear about exactly what it was we were trying to measure - essentially we needed to develop operational definitions of these terms.

Having defined concepts, the next phase of the research involves the development of operational measures. The easiest way to achieve conceptual clarity and develop operational definitions of concepts and constructs is to explore the literature to see how they have been defined in earlier research. This is an important step, as clear and concise definitions of terms need to be developed if they are to be reliably and validly measured.

By adopting previous operational definitions, it is possible to compare the results with those of other researchers. In addition, it will allow researchers to compare whether the results are consistent with previous research or not and isolate also very clearly what information is new (that the contribution to knowledge was).

It is in the development of operational constructs measures of “validity” and “reliability” becomes important. If we are to measure constructions, we must develop the elements to include in a questionnaire that is both valid (they measure what we think they measure) and reliable (they measure things consistently in different contexts and different times). For a discussion of the importance of the validity and reliability see Mitchell (1996).

3.4       Using market research to launch a new brand
Brands play an important role in the confectionery industry. A brand is a name, a brand, or a characteristic that distinguishes one product from another. A good brand effectively guarantees that it will deliver all the qualities associated with it consumption.

Tesco want carries out a systematic process to identify new product ideas, which can be developed and brought to the market. This process always starts with a market research exercise.

3.5       The purpose of market research
Market research is the collection and analysis of data to identify and satisfy consumer needs. The main goal is to reduce risk and facilitate decision making. It is especially useful when launching a new product and ensures that the right products are manufactured. Market research provides information on consumer needs and wants, competitors, marketing mix and potential sales.

·         Consumer needs and wants - individuals have different requirements and consumers with similar characteristics must be identified. A company can then choose a target market or section of the market for its products. This provides a focus for marketing activities.
·         Competitors - no firm exists in isolation. Competitors must be identified and their actions monitored. Research must be undertaken on competing products in order to identify a competitive advantage for the new product.
·         Marketing mix - marketing involves having the right product at the right price in the right place using the right promotion. These are the 4Ps of the marketing mix. It is necessary for the right combination of these to be used in order for a product to be successful. For instance there is no point advertising nationally if research shows the product is only sold in the local area.
·         Potential sales - by knowing the likely level of sales a firm will be able to estimate the correct amount to produce/supply. This reduces the financial risk involved and ensures the maximum return from the firm‘s investment.

3.6            Methods and types of market research
            There are two main methods of market research – desk research and field research.

            Desk research, which is also known as secondary research, is making use of information that is already available. Internally the firm can draw on its own records. Different departments can provide information on sales trends, customers and costing, which are useful in the development of new products. Extensive published material can also be sourced externally. In addition the development of new technology such as the internet provides information at the touch of a button.

            Field research or primary research is performed by communicating directly with potential consumers. It can include surveys, questionnaires and general observation.

            Surveys involve questioning people directly about their attitude to a particular product or service. Surveys are usually carried out using a face to face interview or by telephone. Because it is impossible to survey all target customers, sampling is used. A representative group or sample, whose views will accurately reflect the target population, is chosen. Questionnaires are lists of prepared questions which potential customers are asked to fill out. They are often used in conjunction with surveys. Careful attention must be given to the design of questionnaires so that the answers received are of value for decision making. Information can be gathered by observing people making purchases. A particular store, for example, could be chosen and a study made of how many people buy a particular product.

            There are two types of market research - quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative research provides digital data. At the end of a quantitative project it is possible to say (for example) what proportion or percentage of the decrease of the population in different groups - those who want something, those who would be likely to buy something, those in favor of a particular policy or plan, etc. the essence of quantitative research is that every respondent is asked the same series of questions.

            Quantitative research can be done in different ways, including aspects to face interviews, by telephone, post questionnaires and self-completion. Qualitative research to better understand how and why things are as they are. It can be used on its own or to assist in developing a questionnaire for a quantitative study. There is no fixed set of questions and therefore no assumptions about what is or is not important. Instead, there is a list of issues, problems or opportunities to explore. Own concerns or assumptions of the informant strongly influence the shape and nature of the discussion.
Qualitative research can be used for everything from testing reaction to a potential new advertising campaign, to exploring staff attitudes to a new management structure or procedure. There are various sorts of qualitative research, including unstructured interviews and focus groups (group discussions).


Most are aware that it is a process of gathering information from other sources and documenting it, but few have any idea of how to evaluate the information, or how to present it.

A literature review can be a forerunner in the introduction of a research paper, or it can be just a document by itself, often the first step in major research projects, allowing the supervisor to verify that the student is on track.

A literature review is an assessment of the critical depth and the previous search. It is a summary and synopsis of a particular research area, enabling anyone to read the newspaper to establish why you pursue this particular research program. Good literature is developing on the reasons for selecting a particular research question.

Literature Review 1
Indicate of journals : Daryl Coleman, Connie Gao & Heejae Kim
Title articles : McDonald‘s: Breaching the Luxury Coffee Market

A new market as McDonald's is to try to enter the United States is the luxury coffee market, a market revolutionized by Starbucks Corporation. McDonald has already begun its infiltration by introducing its own line of espresso beverage: latte (hot / iced), Mocha (hot / iced), and cappuccino. More than 7,000 stores across the country are currently selling the new drinks, and McDonald plans to add espresso machines to the majority of its 14,000 stores nationwide by mid-2009. This aggressive addition is facilitated by the growing awareness of the economic downturn and the new demand for food products at low cost. -We Soaps our customers are looking for affordable luxury products, "spokeswoman Danya Proud said McDonald. -" We know our customers visit us, now more than ever, for many of our well known breakfast items, and we know that our coffees continue to be a category growing. "3 The new espresso line is integrated directly in the menu bar, and simplify the process by using English names size (small, medium, large) instead of Italian. McDonald Project $ 1,000,000,000 annual revenue its new espresso line.

McDonald‘s current strategies are distinctly different: specialty coffee and McCafe. One aims to start an in-store line of espresso drinks fully integrated with the current menu, while the other calls for the creation of a completely different restaurant. Note: although McCafe is the name of the McDonald‘s coffee and espresso line, here we will only refer to McCafe as the store.

The idea behind McCafe is to essentially enter the luxury coffeehouse business most well exemplified by Starbucks. By adopting a new brand, McDonald‘s is able to serve coffee and espresso drinks in a place the McDonald‘s image has not tainted. Much like previous McDonald‘s run restaurants such as Chipotle and Boston Market, McCafe will have different menus and décor.

Unlike other brands McDonald, however, McCafe be combined with the existing locations, in a separate section or as a separate sales counter. Not only sales of original restaurants can be increased, but the restaurant can also enjoy a better reputation and increased popularity. This will certainly be the case in the early stages of the implementation of these stores, because people naturally get curious. This is also when establishing McCafe as a substitute worthy and economically friendly cafes current and dissipating a negative reputation as a low-quality coffee brand will be.

McDonald should enter the market premium coffee, because it is the leader in the fast food market and gain a lot of ground to be the first mover. Although McDonald seems to be in direct competition with Starbucks, its target market is actually very different and the entry will be safer because of the differentiation. For example, the new espresso line will provide the perfect complement to the elements of the current McDonald's menu and be able to meet the parents who bring their children to McDonald. The main clients of this new beverage line will mainly present McDonald's customers. The added drinks line will also draw in the part of Starbucks customers who are -On the fence‖ in terms of fidelity. Using automatic espresso machines will not increase the average service time or require baristas and therefore ensures efficiency and consistency, consistent with the principles of McDonald.

Literature Review 2
Indicate of journals : Anchor, J.R and Kouřilová, Terezie, University of Huddersfield Repository
Title articles : Consumer Perceptions of Tesco Own Brands: the Czech Republic and the United Kingdom

Relatively little is known about consumer perceptions of our own brands in the new emerging markets of Central and Eastern Europe. This paper aims to fill a gap in knowledge by studying different aspects of Tesco consumer perception of own brands in the Czech Republic.

The key data for this research was collected by structured questionnaires from Tesco supermarket customers in the Czech Republic and the UK. Non probability quota sampling was used and the sample was stratified according to gender, age and income.

The research results indicate that the general view of Tesco own brand is slightly less positive among Czech as British customers. However, significant differences appear when they are examined in terms of revenues. The lead increases to the income decreased favorability with which own brands are regarded in the Czech Republic - the opposite of the position of the United Kingdom. The age of consumers was also found to be significant even if there is not a linear trend. No significant correlation was found between sex and one of the characteristics under investigation.

Research limitations/implications
The sample was limited in size (n=100 in each country). In depth interviewing would be necessary to assess consumer attitudes further.

Practical Implications The results of this research may help Tesco in relation to its general expansion in central and Eastern Europe and its brand building in particular.

Originality/value of paper The originality of the paper relates to its study of consumer behavior in one of the emerging markets of central and eastern Europe.

Literature Review 3
Indicate of journals : Jayalakshmi Gopalkrishnan, D.Ramalingam & Dr. V.K.Gupta
Title articles : How to win Chinese consumers: Competetive strategy of Wal-Mart in China

The intention of the author of the writing of this case study is to explore the Chinese venture complexities of Wal-Mart. China poses a huge challenge for Walmart as there are cross-cultural differences between Chinese population. Walmarts must understand the Chinese market first and then think about a business model that can keep the country.

Thus the case is to explore in (1) Walmart's competitive strategy in China and (2) to understand the adaptability of its business model for international environments. We collect data from secondary sources and the use of focus groups and 7-8 in-depth interviews with industry experts to understand the situation in a better way. The purpose of meeting this research is to understand the strategic challenges that the world's number one retailer Walmart faces every time he tries to penetrate international markets so that it can take advantage of the untapped potential. Thus, China is a very lucrative destination for any retailer in the world because of its huge population culture. Thus our study revolves around the competitive strategy of Wal-Mart in China and how it adopts its business model in China.

Walmart needs to adjust to the Chinese market, while leveraging its source of competitive advantage. This requires a delicate balance. In the US, Walmart brand is associated with low price rather than quality. In China, where everyone goes for low price and supply of low quality for this, the own brand of Walmart could be insurance for low price, but with high quality by the name Walmart about more than just the retail trade.

While Walmart is a joint venture, the sources do not mention any attempts to exploit the local partner to satisfy the local market, which seems the opposite of some other joint ventures as discussed Danone and Wahaha. In collaboration with the local partner to understand where and how the local regulations may be used or adapted for the success of Wal-Mart and gain a strong hold of the heart of the potential customer can help the growth and dominance of Walmart on Chinese market (The Economist).

Chinese lifestyle trends, Chinese consumption patterns should be kept in mind that Chinese consumers will shop for out of the house, not necessarily at the store. They are trained as pulse and promotions on the site. They are brand conscious but not loyal. They are frequent shopper small amounts and particularly enjoy the fresh (alive) because of the limited space at home (The McKinsey Quarterly).

Lastly, the strong centralization that has helped the American Walmart seems to hold back Walmart in China. China is less homogeneous than America and that calls for decentralization, giving more power to local managers and their supplier-network or perhaps even moving to franchising in some of the more remote locations (“Bringing best practice to China”, The McKinsey Quarterly).

Literature Review 4
Indicate of journals : Young-Sang Cho
Title articles : Retailer brand development and handling processes

This research began with the question: why is the retailer from Tesco brand market in Korea Korean higher than local retailers? Among the foreign grocery retailers that have expanded in Korea, Tesco achieved the most outstanding performance, with the largest share of the private label market. After the withdrawal of Wal-Mart and Carrefour Korea in 2006, Tesco in Korea was positioned as the successful foreign retailer. Therefore, how the Tesco retail operation in Korea is different from that of the local Korean retailers aroused the author's interest, particularly in terms of the development process and handling of private label.

Rather than examining customer perceptions of both Tesco in Korea and Korean national retailers researcher concentrate on identifying the differences between the two parties from the point of view of their operations of private label program. Based on extensive interviews with retailers and suppliers, store observations, author‗s own experience in the development of private label, and company documentation, this research explored the differences between Korea and Tesco Korean domestic retailers in how they develop and manage their own brands. Tesco Korea took advantage of the expertise of retail, that is, brand development skills dispenser created by Tesco in the UK. With the help of Tesco in the UK, the process of development of Tesco's private label in Korea stands out in a number of areas of the local Korean retailers. The exchange of know-how of the retail sale to Tesco UK Tesco in Korea has also influenced the entire private label market in Korea, and stimulated local Korean retailers improve their development skills brand distributor.

The entry of retailers with advanced private label development knowledge in markets where private labels are less well developed is a catalyst in the promotion of private label markets, and intensified retail competition . In addition, the expertise of national private label retailers development is enhanced by imitation or benchmarking foreign retailers. This research suggests that private label share is related to the extent to which retailers are fully involved in the development process and handling for the ranges of private label products and the degree of sophistication or improved their knowledge the development process of private label is. Advanced handling skills development and contribute significantly to the increase in retailer brand market share with a share not no presence of labels.


            5.1       Definitions of Research Design
A research design is the desire to transform a research question in a test project. The best design depends on the research questions. Each model has its positive and negative sides. The research design was considered a "model" for research, the treatment with at least four problems: which questions to study, what data are relevant, what data to collect and how to analyze the results.
Research design can be divided into fixed and flexible search patterns (Robson, 1993). Others have called for this distinction with the "quantitative research plans" and "qualitative research designs." However, fixed drawings shall not be quantitative, flexible design and must not be qualitative. In fixed concepts of study design is set before the main stage of data collection takes place. Fixed Drawings are normally focused on the theory; otherwise it is impossible to know in advance what variables must be controlled and measured. Often, these variables are quantitative. Flexible designs allow greater freedom when collecting data. One reason for using a flexible search model may be that the variable of interest are not quantitatively measurable, such as culture. In other cases, the theory may not be available before you start looking.

5.2       Differences between qualitative and quantitative
Qualitative research is a method of inquiry employed in many different academic disciplines, traditionally in the social sciences, but also in market research and further contexts. Qualitative researchers aim to gather an in-depth understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior. The qualitative method investigates the why and how of decision making, not just what, where, when. Hence, smaller but focused samples are more often needed than large samples.

In the conventional view, qualitative methods produce information only on the relevant individual cases and more general conclusions are only proposals (informed assertions). Quantitative methods can then be used to search for empirical support for these research hypotheses. This view has been challenged by the professor Bent Flyvbjerg of Oxford University, who argues that qualitative methods of research and case studies can be used both to test the assumptions and generalizations beyond the individual cases studied.

Qualitative researchers may use different approaches to data collection, such as the practice of grounded theory, narratology, storytelling, classical ethnography, or shadowing. Qualitative methods are also weakly present in other methodological approaches, such as action research or theory of actor-network. Forms of the data collected can include interviews and group discussions, observation and reflection field notes, various texts, photos, and other materials.

Qualitative research often categorizes data into patterns as the primary basis for organizing and reporting results. Qualitative researchers typically rely on the following methods for gathering information: Participant Observation, Non-participant Observation, Field Notes, Reflexive Journals, Structured Interview, Semi-structured Interview, Unstructured Interview, and Analysis of documents and materials.

The terms of participation and observation may vary significantly from context to context. Participant observation is a reflexive learning strategy, not a single observation method. By participating observation researchers typically become members of a culture, group or setting, and adopt roles to conform to this framework. In doing so, the goal is for the researcher to acquire knowledge more closely in culture practices, motivations and emotions. It is argued that the ability of researchers to understand the experiences of culture may be inhibited if they observe without participating.

Quantitative research refers to the systematic empirical investigation of social phenomena via statistical techniques, mathematical or computer. The objective of quantitative research is to develop and use mathematical models, theories and / or assumptions about the phenomena. The measurement process is at the heart of quantitative research because it provides the fundamental connection between empirical observation and mathematical expression of quantitative relationships. Quantitative data is data that is in digital form, such as statistics, percentages, etc.. In simple terms, this means that the quantitative researcher asks a specific narrow issue and collects digital data by the participants to answer the question. The researcher analyzes the data using statistics. The researcher hopes the numbers will give a biased result that can be generalized to some larger population. Qualitative research, on the other hand, asks great questions of the participants and collects data words. The researcher seeks themes and describes the information in topics and exclusive grounds for all participants.
Quantitative research is used widely in social sciences such as psychology, economics, sociology, and political science, and less frequently in anthropology and history. Research in mathematical sciences such as physics is also 'quantitative' by definition, though this use of the term differs in context. In the social sciences, the term relates to empirical methods, originating in both philosophical positivism and the history of statistics, which contrast qualitative research methods.

Qualitative methods produce information only on the particular cases studied, and any more general conclusions are only hypotheses. Quantitative methods can be used to verify which of such hypotheses are true.


Data collection is a term used to describe a process of preparation and data collection, for example, through improved processes or similar project. The purpose of the data collection is to obtain information to keep on disk, to make decisions on important issues, to convey information to others. Primarily, the data is collected to provide information on a specific topic.

            6.1       Quantitative data collection methods
Quantitative data collection methods, based on random sampling and structured data collection instruments that fit diverse experiences into predetermined response categories. They produce results that are easy to summarize, compare, and generalize.
Quantitative research concerning testing hypotheses derived from the theory and / or be able to estimate the size of a phenomenon of interest. According to the research question, participants are randomly assigned to different treatments. If this is not possible, the researcher can collect data on participant and situational characteristics to control statistically for their influence on the dependent, or result, variable. If the intention is to generalize from research participants of a larger population, the researcher will use probability sampling to select participants.

            6.2       Qualitative data collection methods
Qualitative data collection methods play an important role in the impact assessment by providing useful information to understand the processes underlying the observed results and assessing changes in people's perception of well-being. In addition qualitative methods can be used to improve the quality of quantitative assessments based on surveys by helping generate valuation assumptions; strengthening the design of survey questionnaires and expand or clarify the findings of quantitative assessments. These methods are characterized by the following attributes:

·         they tend to be open-ended and have less structured protocols (i.e., researchers may change the data collection strategy by adding, refining, or dropping techniques or informants)
·         they rely more heavily on interactive interviews; respondents may be interviewed several times to follow up on a particular issue, clarify concepts or check the reliability of data
·         they use triangulation to increase the credibility of their findings (i.e., researchers rely on multiple data collection methods to check the authenticity of their results)
·         generally their findings are not generalizable to any specific population, rather each case study produces a single piece of evidence that can be used to seek general patterns among different studies of the same issue

7.1       Identifying Data Types and Sources
During the development of the instrument, you have identified the data you need for your evaluation. An important first step in planning for data collection is to make an inventory of the types of data you want to collect and where and to whom you are going to get them. You may be collecting two types of data: existing and generated by the program. The collection of pre-planning data and contact with organizations and individuals providing existing data are important. Planning and stakeholder participation will ensure that the data is accessible and available as you need.

7.2       Identifying Who Will Be Involved
It is important to involve stakeholders and all those who will be involved in the collection or data obtained in the pre-planning your data collection. This will help eliminate any questions or problems that might prevent or delay the collection of data. If the authorization to collect data is needed, as a parental authorization for student surveys or patient's permission for access to immunization records, this should be organized before the start of collection. The stakeholders are not directly involved in data collection should also be informed of the data collection plan. Be clear in advance about who will actually collect data eliminate confusion about the roles of citizens and contribute to the debate on whether or not the data collectors are qualified and access needed to collect the data. You will also want to consider whether your data collectors (for example, are not members collect data on the satisfaction of their own performance).

7.3       Setting a Schedule
Timing is one of the most critical elements of data collection. Many types of existing data, like notes and crime statistics, may be available only on fixed schedules. In addition, people who can give you access to existing data (for example, teachers or camp counselors) can be less available at certain times of the year. To avoid planning your data gathering for times when the data may be unavailable, involve as early in your evaluation planning as possible those people that you listed in Step 2, which can give you access to existing data. It is a good idea to check schedules and calendars agency. Timing is also important for data generated by the program. It is essential that you have planned for the collection of pre-service / program data before the services were provided or very early in the delivery of services. For example, if you make cleaning neighborhoods and want to measure a change in the perception of their neighborhood residents, a pre-program survey should be completed before the start of cleaning.

7.4       Training Your Data Collectors
To ensure that your data collection is consistent and accurate, it is important to train your data collectors. Provide your data collectors with clear instructions on how to use instruments and to conduct interviews, focus groups, and other data collection activities.

Points to remember for training data collectors:
·         Walk through the instrument with your data collectors to point out specific instructions.
·         Provide an example of a completed instrument or interview transcript for your data collectors.
·         Provide clear instructions and/or a script (for phone surveys or interviews) for your data collectors to follow.
·         Allow your data collectors to practice with a ‘standard’ data set or example to make sure everyone is getting the same answers, when consistency is desirable. Allow interviewers and focus group facilitators to practice in a ‘role play.’

7.5       Pilot Testing Your Data Collection Processes
As previously mentioned, it is important to practice using methods and data collection instruments. By collecting data on accrual practice, you can identify and eliminate problems that may occur. Keep your practical exercises as realistic as possible. For example, to train data collectors to interview students, it would be ideal to have interviewed students of all ages and from similar backgrounds to those in the program to practice interviews. Also, if you can gather data on pre-existing groups you serve, your dry run can also be used pre-service / master data program.

Include the following in the pilot test:
1.      Pilot test the instruments or other collection methods using realistic practice sessions, focus groups, or other methods.
2.      Analyze data produced by the exercise and data collectors.
3.      Hold a feedback session with data collectors to discuss any challenges. Determine solutions to challenges that arose.

If the pilot test results indicate that changes must be made to approaches or data collection instruments, they must be made before collecting real data. If changes are drastic, another pilot test instruments and / or another practice session with the data collectors may be appropriate. Training issues can also occur, requiring additional training for data collectors in the instrument / method use.

7.6       Implementing the Data Collection
You spent a lot of time planning for your data collection. It is important that your data collectors and other stakeholders are aware of the schedule of the data collection, and the time to collect and return the data back to you. One question you need to consider in your planning, especially during your data collection, is the willingness of respondents to participate in or complete surveys, focus groups, etc. Here are some additional tips to remember as you plan for your data collection.

7.7       Provide Confidentiality
Obtain data from respondents can often be difficult if they fear that the data will be shared with others or they will be identified in the analysis or reporting. It is always important to consider the potential impact of collecting and providing data on the respondent. This is especially important when respondents provide sensitive information, or who may have personal or moral implications (eg, drug consumption surveys or abuse of children, grades in school, or review teachers, mentors, program staff).

7.8       Identify the Quantity of Service
If applicable, make sure that your data collection process include a system to separate people who have received a large number of services of those who have received little or no. This means that it will be important to keep track of program participation through attendance sheets or presence of newspapers. For anonymous measures, it may help to ask questions like "How many times have you attended the counseling drop-in sessions? or "how"?

7.9       Use Low Burden Methods
Data collection should not be a burden: plan to integrate service delivery when you can. Some instruments, such as newspapers and magazines goal setting, can be implemented as part of the activity provided by the programs. For example, goal setting can be used both to plan tutorials and measure their impact. Magazines can act as a forum for learning to write, and an event of change in skills and attitudes. Similarly, in an immunization program, child immunization cards can be used both as a data collection tool and an educational tool as well as a reminder system for appointments for parents.


Statement of the Problems and Ideas - Tesco Malaysia offers different brands that chili sauce is a popular condiment in the country and due to the continuous demand for this condiment Tesco management make Malaysia needs to present their own brand of chili sauce for local consumption Malaysian although they already have their own chili sauce Tesco brand. They also need to know if they are able to compete with other manufacturer familiar with this or will it be possible to introduce their own local brand? What would be the application and how it will be accepted by the public knowing that there are the most popular brands in their stores in Malaysia? Tesco will allow their local branding process?

Literature Review - Tesco has also enabled the local brand to gain access to local consumers locate products of their own which is usually effective in targeting their preferences this also strengthens nationalist approach although most of their products shop are imported from other countries. Tesco Value also the initiative of the manager to think globally by selling their products locally knowing that every little bit helps and we put our heart to serve you as their slogan. (Main Tesco) Location of international brands is very effective tools in most stores in different industries so there will be no problem in the supply and management of rebranding. McDonald's, Pepsi, Walter Mart, Star Bucks and other organizations also made this strategy to develop their brand.

But it would take more accurate perception, but a real identification of the production process and market trials to project sustainability and return on investment on the research process. Therefore, it must be well documented. The production plant, labor and promotion budget is needed to position the new product entry. This means that it would really take an upfront cost and investment in their production, they should start as early as possible in their production to test their product on the market. Locally manufactured products engage in an international organization would be their advantage, but they must also understand the product is not made to compete with their products, but to ensure that the consumer has more opportunity to buy their favorite brand or they end up with competition with one another.
Collection of relevant data - Malaysia is a relatively small country, but they have a large arable land consists of approximately 3930 hectares reserved only for the production of spice and culture according to the Federal Agricultural Marketing Authority (FAMA 1995) So they have the resources to produce their own brand that will provide them their competitive advantage given its local brand. Chile is one of the key ingredients to Malay cuisine due to its popularity and its taste. The local chili market in Malaysia has increased to 21% from 2013 and still earn the request until the present time, in fact, in 2014, they used more than 50,000 tons of pepper a year Distribution. (The Economic Times Magazine 2014) Knowing that demand is good, sources and materials are available in Malaysia and Tesco brand localization support, it is almost possible to start the production process and its Re brand objectives is easy to do knowing that everything is in its place.

Analysis and conclusion of the study - Since the details were summarized and introduced (excluding financial report), the problem and the solution has also been identified, we can say that the proposal of the management of Tesco in Malaysia in the image brand and the production of local chili sauce is very doable in their country. It is very positive that this can bring a good response when introduced so that they should not delay their plan.




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