28 Jun 2019

INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION

           

                                                                                                                         

TABLE OF CONTENT


1.0                   INTRODUCTION                                                                             2

2.0                   MASS COMMUNICATION                                                             5

3.0                   DISCUSSION UNIQUE ASPECT OF MASS
COMMUNICATION                                                                         12

4.0                   GATESKEEPERS’ ROLES IN DELIVERY NEWS AND
NEWS COVERAGE DURING THE MH370 TRAGEDY               16

5.0                   CONCLUSIONS                                                                               25

                        REFERENCES                                                                                  27

1.0                   INTRODUCTION

The word communication comes from the Latin word "communicatus" means "belong together". Therefore, it can actually be defined as the activity that aims to achieve togetherness and understanding.

Communication is simply the process of exchanging information between individuals through a system of symbols, signs or behavior.

There are various of types of explanation of the communication presented by leading experts, the argument follows picked two of them:

I. Weaver said communication is the procedure in which the mind can influence the mind of someone else.
II. Berelson & Steiner said communication is a process of delivering information, ideas, emotions, skills, etc. through the use of symbols such as words, pictures, numbers, and others.


Communication actually encompasses the delivery of information or idea by one individual to another individual with the intent or purpose to reach an understanding.
With the help of telecommunications equipment and advanced technology nowadays communication can happen anywhere across the globe. It used to be an issue for communicating with people who are outside the range of their area.

For example, a snail mail from Malaysia will takes at least three weeks to cross the Pacific Ocean to reach those in the states.

The development in technology, especially in the information and technology section in very fast in the last few decades. Unlike before we can now obtain information instantly through mass media, with the technology like radio, television, and newspaper.

Over the years, the likes of smart phones, the access of the internet and so on had become a basic need in our present day life. While two-way communication is more effective than those of one way, and with the help of these communication tools it have become so conveniently we can now explore the world instantly.

Gatekeepers is the individual or group whose main task is to select, define, modify, accept or reject the messages transmitted in mass communication.

The message that target the public actually poses the responsibility to the communities in which they should be ensure of its credibility. Try to imagine what would happen if the public receive news and information that is false and wrong.

A good example is the issue that arose recently in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, riots in Plaza Low Yat, which lead to inter-ethnic strife because of the false information from social media. Incidents such as these may indirectly lead to divisions between races and it is even possible that the 13 May 1969 and will happen again if it continues without control.


Therefore, for those who want to share news and information on social media, must think of the consequences it brings. In Malaysia there are laws that are applicable to control activities in social media.




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2.0                   MASS COMMUNICATION

Mass communication has a variety of explanations and definitions. Communication channels used in the mass media, is to convey or share information from multiple sources to the public otherwise known as media users.

We interact with mass media on daily basic. Watching television, listening to radio, reading newspapers, reading magazines or even surfing the Web. And in this era, mass communication also includes computerized technologies such as WebTV.

According to Gamble & Gamble (2002), mass communication is a process of message sent and receive by a controller before being sent to the public through media channels. Mass communication actually consists of five groups that will be discussed in more detail as follows:


i.          Communicator
Communicators here refers to the speaker of a message in which the information was generated in the form of a message.

In the context of mass communication, the communicator such as journalists who are always sensitive to current issues happening around us, a screenwriter who want to give birth to the idea for a movie or an interesting storyline, or a lyricist who is trying to write a song.


ii.         Message
There are many type of message available to the public. For example, a message can be delivered through mass communication in the form of short stories, novels, stories, television shows, commercials or websites.



iii.        Mass Media
In mass communication, the message is sent through a specific channel called mass media. Mass media is an intermediary or mediator help containing, storing and sending messages to the public.


Generally, the mass media can be categorized into two groups, the print and electronic media. Examples of print media are newspapers, magazines and books as electronic media including radio, films, recordings, television and computer.


iv.        Gatekeeper
Gatekeepers serve to filter out information that is inappropriate or lacks of credibility to ensure the news they send is correct and safe.


For instance, newspapers will not publish pictures of the victims involved in a horrific car accident because this is a step to pay homage to the victims. Gatekeepers interpret information based on professional ethics so as not to offend anyone with information that might cause discomfort.


V. Audience
Audience is a group of individuals who act as consumers and recipients of messages from the media. Due to the ability of the media to convey the message is large, the target audience of mass communication is certainly not limited.


They are individuals with different needs and wants for information. They come from different backgrounds and places. The audience size can be hard to determine in today’s world as communication is now more open than ever.










3.0                   DISCUSSION UNIQUE ASPECT OF MASS COMMUNICATION


3.1       Sources of operating in complex organizations.
Mass communication is a little bit different from other communication. First aspect is that it normally involves a profit oriented organization in between.

For example, radio station operators are divided into general government and the private sector. This is normal because of the existence of positive competition between each other. But to cover the huge expense to ensure smooth operation, the effort required to make enough earning from their services.

Radio Malaysia Kelantan FM commenced operations on 16 November 1963, despite having to contend with the emergence of popular radio stations in private, he does not drown Kelantan FM. The station now has a total of 663,000 listeners who, according to a recent study by AC Nielsen in 2011. Today, after five consecutive years of Kelantan FM is a radio station or radio that the government has a number of radio listeners highest.

Due to the overwhelming public acceptance, then it is also a chance for them to generate more profits by upgrading existing services. The radio station was able to capitalize on their advantage to achieve revenue through advertising RM2.1 million in 2011. It is the highest revenue among radio stations in Malaysia. In 2008, revenue of RM1 million. It rose to RM1.8 million the following year and continued to increase to RM1.9 million in 2010.

Mass communication has to face fierce competition to survive in this competitive market. Therefore, it can be said that the first uniqueness of mass communication where profit is an important ingredient to look at for their survivor.


3.2         Public Audience.
In contrast to other types of communication, the audiences in mass communication are way larger in number. They can come from different location with no limits of space and time. In addition, they also have desires, interests and needs that are varied.

For example, Hypp TV is Malaysia's leading IPTV service, owned by Telekom Malaysia (TM). It was first introduced as a complement to residential customers UniFi, but from 2013, it has been enjoyed by retail customers UniFi and Streamyx customers.

Advantage in Hypp TV is that it can overcome problems like audience in different locations. Supplement with Hypp TV Everywhere program, users can watch their favorite shows anywhere or anywhere with just a smart-phone or laptop.


To address the needs and interests of different clients, Hypp TV also take the initiative to provide a variety of channels and packages for their consumers the option of displaying a list of prices and affordable.

There are many types of interesting packages that are available for the customer. With various channels available to meet customers' expectation. And all this is under reasonable monthly subscription price.

Through various efforts put in by the Hypp TV, it can be concluded that mass communication is that it's full potential to meet the needs of a growing audience in this era.



3.3            Via inter-mediators that require technology.

Communication takes place through intermediaries, which requires the use of technology to encode and decode information. Unlike other communication, mass communication requires a more sophisticated equipment to operate.

For example, the satellite is an electronic device that orbits the earth. It receives the microwave signal from the transmitter station, translated its frequency, and then amplified to be transmitted back to the earth in accordance with its coverage of the earth station location transmitter or receiver.
Satellite for the purpose of communication is to receive and send the broadcast signal to all the places you can reach. This allows the radio and television broadcasts can be received anywhere along can be captured by transmitting earth station antenna. In other words, the main benefits of the satellite technology is for both radio and television broadcasting.


The technology needed for this mass communication are playing an increasingly vital role. The effectiveness with comprehensive coverage and a broad range of coverage in certain areas or even global, it can even reach half of the earth's surface.




4.0 GATESKEEPERS’ ROLES IN DELIVERY NEWS AND NEWS COVERAGE DURING THE MH370 TRAGEDY

When the MH 370 tragedy happened, the mass communication played an important role in providing the latest information on the developments of MH370. Malaysia or the world is focused on our country. So, were the media doing their job accordingly back then? Lets look it through.

With reference to the traditional model of communication time, I will discuss the role of gatekeepers in the presentation of the latest news and news coverage during the crisis MH370.

The flow of information going around is delivered by the source to the audience through an intermediary such as TV, radio, newspapers, magazines and so on. And in relation to the validity of the information presented is emphasized and this important task assumed by the individual or the group called gatekeepers. For example, for a news broadcast televisions, will filter editor and determine the pattern of presentation of the news.


The news or articles published in newspapers and magazines, of course, is the person responsible as editor and the gate keeper. Their main task is to prevent the spread of incorrect message and news to the public which will cause disruption of public order. This will put the country's image at risk. Also it need to consider the feeling of the death victim’s family as well.

The public always considered the messages to be true and discuss the issues and the information obtained from the television, radio or newspapers with their own views.

In my view, the gatekeepers have carried out their duties with dedication and responsibility. This MH370 crisis should not be taken lightly by everyone. So, in relation to the delivery of news, should practice moderation and do not be too aggressive or emotional.


Referring to a press conference was held, it would be more comfortable if the media gatekeepers broadcast the news as it is verified news in the announcement by the Malaysia Transport Minister on the crisis.

However, it was not easy to fill pages per sheet in the press that we buy every day. So the papers need to put in their view and discussion into the paper too. For example, even the Daily Herald reporter had to write stories about MH370, news of the named were taken and then published in newspapers to strengthen the news will be published in the same issue. Emphasizing the credibility of the news then, can convince the public that the report is based is not exaggerated impunity.


Gatekeepers act ethically enough in delivering relevant news with the MH370 with reference to a source which has high credibility before making a detailed report so as not to confuse people, especially family members of victims.

Fact and opinion are two different aspects. Facts are data about the events or what happened. While opinions are those of the individual or group of people about the events that are likely to say what should happen.

If the two is mixed, then the information was obtained or disseminated it can be biased or one-sided facts giving rise to confusion. Words written in the form of news and opinion is described in the article.

For example, recent developments about MH370 found in Sugbay Island, Philippines. If the news was broadcast prior to conducting further investigation, in certain situations, family members and individuals who are significant to the crew and the penunmpang have high hopes to be reunited with them. If there are individuals who are not liable to appear and give information in respect of the aircraft, it seemed to give new hope to them.

However, if the source or new information available is declared invalid, then those who hoped this would hurt his emotions. Therefore, the media’s professional ethic is very important and the responsibility of gatekeepers to prevent unauthorized dissemination of information.

If someone is doing something beyond their knowledge, including the speculation made by the public about the MH370. However, the gatekeepers of the media managed to avoid reporting incorrect information. As the agency or accredited mass media, should perform their duties with full ethical, and reporting throughout the MH370, and found it had tried its best to make the best.

Referring to the mass media broadcast television, the gatekeepers are also trying to get the latest information before making unfounded and broadcast to the public. For example, the AFP to post about the latest developments in relation to the discovery of the wreckage MH370 Sugbay Island, Philippines. Astro get confirmation from the head of the National Police, Tan Sri Khalid Abu Bakar announcement via his Twitter police. Here's how to work professionally and ethically without any provocation.


However, the RTM TV2 was publishing the wrong news of  "The Flight MH370 Is Seized". The incident ended with the RTM apologizing via Facebook and pledged to investigate the identification of such negligence.


Generally, it is undeniable what technological advances had help us all but there are some small groups of individuals who abuse that.

Spreading false news via Short Messaging System (SMS and MMS) and websites is happening everywhere, triggering public outrage. Although this sounds simple but it is not easy to handle. Gatekeepers are the ones that play an important role in solving this.

Many that took the opportunity to spread false news about the discovery MH370 just to get popularity as well as attention from others are all very childish and irresponsible. Social media, the platform for these spreading false new. Given that their information was not fully vetted, it becomes a dangerous channel for dissemination of news without checking first.


People are advised not to spread false news impunity and becoming a socially responsible. The feeling of family members would be hurt by the actions naive shown by some people who are not sensitive to the feelings of others.


Effects of missing is still felt today, with the spread of false news, it will engrave all Malaysians.

In addition, the language and manners are important in terms of presenting news. In terms of language, seen through the selection of sentences and words that are suitable for reading by all ages. And all of this will not happen in mass media accredited because there is censorship of the gatekeepers, and it's a lot happening in the social media such as Twitter and so open.

Therefore, it can be concluded that during the presentation of the latest news and news coverage during the crisis MH370, media gatekeepers have managed to carry out their duties as best as possible in order to protect the common interest.





5.0              Conclusion

According to the explanation and analysis that have been made about the role of mass communication and media gatekeepers, it does appear that the mass communication is absolutely different and unique compared with other types of communication. It is targeting a large crowd and need high technology to operate.

Development of technology has make thing easier for mass communication. It had changed the way of how to communicate verbally to the writing and reading, so printing and finally a sophisticated electronic age.

While the progress is still in development stage since the technology will not stop step toward upgrading. Therefore, communication is increasingly different from the existence of the traditional model of mass communication (mass media organizations) and the modern model of mass communication.

The media gatekeepers play an important role, which they are the decision making before a piece of information or news releases disseminated in both radio and television.

When presenting the news, the source of the information must be identified, and most importantly of course the validity of the information. If wrongly convey information were ever given to the audience, the effect is very bad. It occupies an impact on the emotional, mental and spiritual recipient of such information.

In the ethics of journalism or news spread, difficult to separate the elements of fact and opinion. Often news raised the public is a combination of facts and interpretations or opinions of journalists and individuals who deliver the news.

In conveying the facts, the responsible individual or journalist will not confuse news with the fact that his own personal opinion. They can make the description but instead by changing facts and padded add the words flowery cozy ear candy for the audience or the audience.

However, the function of mass communication is no doubt about the importance of enabling information or information distributed to the public through a variety of media.

Through discussion in the task, indeed portray a situation that clearly displays the function and role of gatekeepers of mass communication that is able to translate the information to the maximum in order to serve the interests of society. Our lives are not spared the communication, because we want to communicate it gives birth to the creation of materials for high-tech fulfill that dream.

Communication is interpreted as effectively when there is a two-way flow of information between the sender (source) and the recipient of information. If one of the elements of a problem, then communication process. Mass communication challenges in order to deliver information and information through channels that are specific to the audience. But the task undertaken by the media gatekeepers are very important and should not be underestimated impunity. Thought someone may be disturbed and affected only through information or information received. Therefore, the responsibility must be shouldered with a vengeance.

Thus, mass communication which seeks to enhance the consistent lifestyle of community members. Be a good listener to create an atmosphere conducive to communication.



REFERENCES

Blame Game Erupts as China Criticises Malaysia over MH370. (2014, March 10). Times of Oman (Muscat, Oman). Retrieved November 1, 2015, from http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-361100034.html

DeFleur, M., & Rokeach, S. (1982). Theories of mass communication (4th ed.). New York: Longman.

Malaysia defends military inaction on MH370 radar. (2014, May 19). AP Online. Retrieved November 1, 2015, from http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1A1-2f7c0fffff364bbebbef5755c18a307c.html

School of Journalism & Mass Communication : Texas State ... (n.d.). Retrieved November 1, 2015.

Schramm, W., & Roberts, D. (1971). The process and effects of mass communication (Rev. ed.). Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Vivian, J. (2009). The media of mass communication (9th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.












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