29 Jun 2019




Introduction of NKS System  Sdn Bhd



Hackman and Oldham’s Job Characteristics Model  



Identification of Core Job Dimension in NKS System Sdn Bhd



Recommendations to Increase Critical Psychological States  of NKS System Sdn Bhd Employees








The main purpose of this study is to identify and evaluate the employment Core Dimension of tasks performed by workers in NKS System Sdn Bhd and recommend methods to increase their critical psychological States. The identification and assessment conducted using the Hackman and Oldham Job Characteristic Model. The model describes the relationship between job characteristics and individual response to work. There are five dimensions of employment prompting three psychological states that lead to positive personal and professional results. (Hackman, J. and R. Lee, M.D, 1979)

NKS System Sdn. Bhd. was established in 1995 and has grown under the supervision of Dato’ Norizan Bakar, the founder. The firm is operating from the location shown by the address and map below:-

No. 8A, Jalan BK 5A/2A, Bandar Kinrara, 47100 Puchong, Selangor
Map 1: Location of NKS System Sdn Bhd
Source: http://www.NKSsystem.com/

The working interest of the company and comprehensive services industry and telecommunications technology. They concentrate and specialize in works of optical fibers and operation and maintenance (O & M) for the telecommunications industry (contract). The company has over 15 years of experience with meetings of the experience of 30 years. They have expertise in the installation, supply and maintenance of all types of telephone and internet services (telecommunications) for residential, commercial, hospital, hotel, commercial and industrial centre. The company provides all types of cleaning and maintenance programs for all telecommunication systems and associated equipment (NksSystem.com, 2013).

List of the services offered by the company, are:

·         Design, Supply and Install
·         Comprehensive DSLAM and Cabinet (Total Maintenance)
·         Copper and Fibre Cable Installation / maintenance
·         Thermography, Ultrasonic and Vibration Analysis and Testing
The organisational chart of NKS System is as below:
Assistant Technicians/ Handyman

Project Engineer
Maintenance Engineer


Assistant Technicians/


Figure 1.1: NKS Systems Organization Chart
For the purposes of this type of work, the author chooses the company's maintenance division to be assessed and evaluated according to Hackman and Oldham job characteristics model. All employees are skilled workers and working full time with the company. Generally, the type of work is mechanical and electrical engineering. The manager gets potential customers, addresses issues of human resources and budgeting. In the case of applications that do not fall into any category and the need for custom design, engineers will liaise with the customer to meet the challenge and create unique solutions tailored. Engineer also prepare work schedules and deal with the application of technology. While technicians attend any complaints handyman help technicians.

The Job Characteristics developed by organizational psychologists J. Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham is a normative approach to the enrichment of employment. It specifies five core job dimensions that will lead to critical psychological states to the employee. The model is one of the most influential attempts to conceive of jobs with increasing motivators.
Figure 1 is showing the outline of the model:
Figure 2.1: An outline of The Job Characteristics Model
Source: Hackman and Oldham (1980: 90)
The model explains that workers achieve a high internal motivation to work, the high overall job satisfaction, satisfaction the high growth and high work efficiency if they experience the following factors in their work:
·         Perceive their work to be meaningful
·         Experience responsibility for the outcomes of their work
·         Have knowledge of the outcomes of their work.
These three factors are created and enhanced by five factors inherent in the design of the job itself namely: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback.

A. Core Job Dimension

B. Critical Psychological States

C. Personal & Work Outcomes

Co-Relations/Influences of CJD, CPS and PWO on One Another
Meaning labour is caused by the variety of competence, task identity and task importance, is that the former are the independent variables and the dependent one. Living responsibility for work results is a dependent variable of autonomy and knowledge of the results of the dependent variable feedback. It is useful to further examine the concept of internal motivation. This is the kind of influence that motivated employees who do not require coaches’ managers because they are doing what is necessary and more without having to be asked. The rewards tend to be internal not external. Three psychological states necessary for a great motivation. Hackman and Oldham state it is remarkable that even people who consider themselves relatively lazy will be put in much effort in these three factors are richly experienced.

The Role of Individual Need for Growth
In Hackman and Oldham, there are three moderating variables are: knowledge and skills, growth need strength and "satisfaction of context" It is important to view learning in the workplace as a self-process. led to personal and professional development to achieve concrete benefits of active participation in the labour relations every day. There are possibilities of typical quiet learning related to employment improvement activities such as skills development work during the organized course or independent use of work-related materials.

The Maintenance Divison of NKS Systems Sdn. Bhd. consist of full time employee groups ranging from a manager/owner, mechanical engineers, technicians and assistant technicians (handyman). Even though there is not a large pool of employees present in this division, the author finds it interesting and important to identify and assess CJD in the working environment. We will analyse the presence of CJD according to the different group of employees respectively.

A.    Mechanical Engineers
Engineers are responsible for health and safety aspects of mechanical, electrical buildings. They ensure that these services effectively in the company's projects. The role includes the design and maintenance of air conditioning, elevators and other mechanical systems, distribution of electricity and water supply and the provision of lighting and heating.

Image 3.1: An Engineer Evaluating Theoretical Design
Source: NKS System

From the observation of the author, engineers tend to be more satisfied because they always deal with real situations where they can improve and influence. Their work gives meaning to huge job satisfaction because it combines creative innovation, technological expertise and its relevance for customers. Front construction, large projects and large pieces of equipment contributions have a direct impact on the success of a project, so that job satisfaction and value are high for this group.

B.     Technicians
NKS System Technicians assist in the search for engineering, design, manufacturing, construction, operation and maintenance of machinery, manufacturing equipment, installations and mechanical equipment. They prepare drawings, plans and drawings for mechanical works under the direction of the engineer. They also have the responsibility in the choice of tools and equipment, assembling and installing new and modified mechanical assemblies, components, machine tools and controls, and energy network servers.

Skill Variety
·         Design techniques, tools, and principals involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
·         Skills in machines and tools, including their designs, repair, and maintenance.
·         Skills in methods and the tools involved in the construction or repair of houses, buildings, or other structures.
Task Identity
·         Fully assist and involve throughout the construction, operation and maintenance of mechanical and process plant and installations.
·         Produces a final set of accurate drawings for each stage of the production process.
Task Significance
·         Technicians fill the gap between the significant tasks performed by engineers and handyman.
·         Their part is essential to complete any work carried out by the company.
·         Consult with engineers the best way to develop and plan a design, and once the design has been created, independently create the drawings that machinists use as reference when building a tool or piece of machinery.
·         Also undertake some basic administrative work such as creating and updating lists of parts without direct instructions.
Direct and clear information from the job about the effectiveness of his performance from the manager and engineer.

Image 3.2: Technicians Splicing Fiber Optic and Jointing
Source: NKS System

The author finds that technicians get job satisfaction because at the end of the profession is customer service. According to one of the technicians of the company, "to see people happy with the job you did make the day of any technician worth it." Important task of reviewing the instructions and project plans to determine the test specifications, procedures and objectives, and the test nature of technical issues such as the redesign ultimately lead to their high internal motivation. variety of techniques and skills to do the jobs project-based work also simulate the performance of high-quality technicians. therefore, job satisfaction regarding CJD happens to be the average level for this group.

C.    Assistance Technicians/Handyman
The support technicians or handyman in NKS system does odd jobs such as rolling over, paint, repair and maintain DSLAM, grounds and facilities. Works like fixing security risks, with all equipment, installation of equipment and machinery as well as make minor plumbing and spraying also by these tinkerers. They also maintain working papers; operates trucks and related building maintenance equipment; tools and equipment in clean and safe working conditions; responds to emergency calls after normal working hours. They often help technicians successfully complete specific tasks.

Image 3.2: Assistant Technician is installing underground cables.
Source: NKS System

This group of employees has high degrees of SPC from 1 to 3 criteria above. The need to use various physical skills such as plumbing, carpentry and electrical skills ultimately contributes to the significant experience of work and to stimulate the internal motivation to work. But the level of autonomy is still bound to the constraints, because the layout of their work is still subject to approval by their superiors. This in no way limit the level of satisfaction in their work. Apart from this, the ratings on their employment outcomes superior happens regularly. This group also learns the result directly with clients on occasions when attending to urgent matters. This ultimately allows them to learn the actual results of the work activity and lead to low absenteeism and turnover rates. Overall, the level of satisfaction regarding CJD for this group is still at low levels compared to engineers and technicians.

On identifying and assessing levels of CJD, as PWO and CPS job characteristics model Hackman and Oldham, the author provides some recommendations for SCN system. These recommendations aim to improve the CJD group of workers to increase their CPS.
A.    Skill Variety
Job Rotation – the company must take measures to allow workers the opportunity to use a variety of skills, and perform different types of work. The most common way to do this is through job rotation. Engineers, technicians and handyman must be moved through a variety of jobs that allow them to learn different skills and gain different experiences. This can be very motivating, especially to those people who are in jobs that are very repetitive.

B.     Task Identity
Combine Tasks - Work activities should be combined to provide jobs that are more difficult and complex. Task identity can be improved because engineers, technicians and assistant technicians involved in the work from beginning to end. This allows them to understand the work seems more meaningful and important. The expansion of their role gives them responsibility for the whole process and let them live meaning in their work. This situation will lead to high quality of their work performance.

C.    Task Significance
Implement Participative Management - The Company may allow engineers and technicians to participate in decision making and participate in the planning of project companies. This is a great way to make them understand that their participation is important. It can work in such a small company with a manager / owner who has a close and direct communication with all employees. Contribute to the overall business goals of the organization can give employees a better idea of their role (for example, how their work falls within the larger picture) and the importance and relevance of their work to business objectives.

D.    Autonomy
Engineers and technicians enjoy a high level of autonomy in this society. But lower-level employees (handymen) do not have as much flexibility in their work process. The author suggests:
Provide Options/Choice - When the design work itself is predetermined by management, employees should be allowed to decide how they will finish the job. This can create a feeling of choices need to be motivated intrinsically. Allow Handyman to adapt their approach to their preferences and abilities will also give them a greater sense of control over the situation they are in, which benefits performance. If the situation cannot give them free rein in total, the company should try to give them a choice between two options for how to proceed.
Adjustment of Work list - This group of employees must be the opportunity to resolve the appearance of work items in their worklists to their own preferences. This measure provides technician assistant / handymen with greater autonomy. When there is a possibility to adjust the appearance of work items in the worklist, they create a better overview of things they have to do according to their own preferences. This makes it easier to decide for themselves how and what work item has to be done next.

E.     Feedback
Natural/Emphasise Need For Growth - The management should ensure that the results of work done are accurately fed back to employees and highly visible thus allowing unobstructed feedback. As far as possible this feedback should be a natural, on-going part of the job not the type which is given by a superior in a job appraisal. Emphasis should be placed on increasing the opportunities for growth. These vary from one employee to the next so the process should be structured to include input from the individual.
Focus more on leveraging employee’s strengths than trying to fix their weaknesses - When offering feedback to employees, it’s only natural to want to mention elements of an employee’s performance that is in need of some improvement. A better approach to NKS System is to look at the areas where employees are excelling to find out why they are performing so well in that particular task, and figuring out how that can be applied to the part of their work they are having difficulty with. This will allow the company to help their employees to learn to use their strengths across different areas, while gaining a better appreciation for what aspects of their work will require the help of their colleagues for them to complete the task. It’s important to remember that the opportunity for growth for employees lies not in addressing their weaknesses, but on building their ability to contribute their existing strengths.

5.0       SUMMARY
The presence of Core Job Dimensions among different employee groups varying from Mechanical Engineers, Technicians as well as Assistant Technicians/Handyman identified in the author’s findings. The assessment was carried out on each group of employees separately based on the five core dimensions.
The author found that almost all evaluated groups are skilled workers and uses various skills according to their level of employment to perform tasks. The variety of skills among engineers, technicians and handyman are also clearly identified. Appointed employees’ opportunities to use their skills and abilities as one of the top five factors that influence job satisfaction. To improve that element in leading to better CPS, the author recommends the job rotation method to allow workers the opportunity to use a variety of skills, and perform different types of work.
As for task identification, each group of employees is very clear about the degree to which their job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work. The engineers organise and oversee the whole work projects while technicians fully assist and involve throughout it. Whereas the assistant technicians give their input at every level from the beginning to completion as a whole even though not as much as the previous 2 groups. To further enhance this dimension, the author recommends the company to combine tasks by expanding their roles which give them responsibility for the entire process and let them experience meaningfulness towards their work.
In addition to this, the important task for each group was carefully analysed. Engineers believe that the genius and art must be combined. Each work has its own beauty to the end and the perfect finish of satisfaction should be seen and enjoyed by all. Technicians believe that the last set of specific drawings for each stage by them is crucial to each project by the company. Whereas, assistant technicians understand the importance of their work to respond to emergency issues. They eventually become the bridge between the company and customers whenever there is a breakdown. To increase the level of significance of the work, the company recommended to apply participatory management that allows engineers and technicians to participate in decision making and participate in the planning of project companies.
The level of autonomy in the performing jobs and feedback on their employment outcomes considered another aspect of all groups motivation satisfaction and employment. Freedom and discretion to make decisions, such as planning the work and determine how it should be done gives employees a greater sense of responsibility for the results of their work and, in turn, their satisfaction. Engineers and technicians found to be more independent in the performance of their jobs compared to technicians assistants. Feedback of the levels of all groups are found to be in a satisfactory level. All employees of the company receive the information clear and direct employment on the effectiveness of their performance from the manager, superiors and customers.
Finally, recommendations to maximise responsibility for work outcomes and knowledge of the actual results of work activities among the engineers, technicians and especially assistant technicians summarised below:
Provide Options and Choice - to adapt the approach of an employee to their preferences and abilities and give greater sense of control over their work.
Adjustment of Work list - Assistant technicians should be an opportunity to resolve the appearance of work items in their worklists to their own preferences.
Natural/Emphasise Need For Growth is expected to concentrate in direct assessments to increase employee growth opportunities.
Leveraging employee’s strengths than trying to fix their weaknesses to help employees maximize their strengths while gaining a better understanding to overcome the weaknesses.

As evidenced by this study using Hackman and job characteristics Model Oldham, critical basic psychological states used Labour Dimension influences and these factors ultimately lead to personal results and the employees. Job satisfaction may contribute to multiple organizational gains and was associated with increased motivation of internal work, performance quality and low absenteeism or turnover. This benefits ultimately the organization such as the NKS system in terms of high performance and increased productivity.                                                                                               
(3637 Words)

About Us. (2013). Retrieved from: http://nkssystem.com/aboutus.php
Hackman, J.R. And Lee, M.D. (1979), ‘‘Redesigning work: a strategy for change” Studies in Productivity, Work in America Institute.
Hackman, J.R. And Oldham, G.R. (1975), ‘‘Development of the job diagnostic survey” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 60, pp. 159-70.
Hackman, J.R. And Oldham, G.R. (1976), ‘‘Motivation through the design of work: test of a theory” Organizational Behaviour and Human Performance, Vol. 15, pp. 250-79.
Hackman, J.R. And Suttle, J.L. (1977), Improving Life at Work: Behavioural Science Approaches to Organizational Change, Goodyear Publishing, Santa Monica.
Hackman, J.R., & Oldham, Greg. R. (1980). Work Redesign, Addison-Wesley.

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