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HUMAN RESOURCE

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FACULTY OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT



SEMESTER JANUARY (2014)



BDPO4103

INTRODUCTORY OPERATION MANAGEMENT












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TABLE OF CONTENT


1.0     INTRODUCTION                                                                  2

2.0     HACKMAN AND OLDHAM JOB CHARACTERISTIC    
          MODEL
2.1     Components of the Model                                                                5

3.0       IDENTIFICATION OF CORE JOB DIMENSION
AND ASSESMENT                                                                8

4.0     RECOMMENDATIONS IN IMPROVING CORE JOB DIMENSION WITHIN TIME BERHAD WORKERS          11
4.1      Skill Variety                                                                                      
4.2       Task Identity                                                                                                
4.3       Task Significance
4.4        Feedback

5.0     CONCLUSION                                                                      13

6.0     REFERENCES                                                                      14



1.0              INTRODUCTION




TIME dotCom Berhad (TIME) is a data-centric, fixed-line telecommunications provider based in Malaysia, with a business reach across the Asia-Pacific region. TIME, whose track record dates back to 1996, was listed on Malaysia’s Main Market in 2001.

TIME’s credibility has been built by providing best-in-class backhaul and wholesale bandwidth to leading local, regional and global operators in Malaysia and the Asia-Pacific region.

It also delivers 100% fibre optic-based telecommunications solutions, including private leased lines and dedicated Internet services to large corporations, government organisations and enterprises that demand state-of-the-art, always-on connectivity.

Building on its considerable experience serving enterprises and corporations, TIME’s strategic expansion into the consumer segment has seen it offering Malaysia’s first-ever 100% fibre-optic broadband service to a mainly urban, affluent clientele.

TIME’s high-speed, reliable and resilient services have spawned successful and innovative partnerships with some of the country’s biggest consumer names.

TIME's Malaysian business is anchored by its Cross Peninsular Cable System (CPCS™), a 6,000 kilometre-long advanced fibre optic network that traverses Malaysia, from Thailand to Singapore.

Designed as a fully meshed network, the CPCS™ is the most robust trans-border terrestrial system ever built. Following extensive upgrades in 2012, TIME is the only provider in Malaysia to have a next-generation, 100% IP|MPLS network.

TIME's regional network is operated by its subsidiary, Global Transit Group (GT). GT's content-rich network offers high-availability services to leading service providers and enterprises across the region.

GT’s global footprint includes Singapore, Hong Kong, Japan and the US. With links in international submarine cable systems such as UNITY and Asia Pacific Gateway (APG), GT is able to connect Asia to the rest of the world.

TIME’s business is further augmented by the AIMS Group of Companies. Strategically located in the Malaysian capital's central business district, AIMS is an award-winning, carrier-neutral data centre provider.

Home to all of Malaysia's telecommunications providers and another 200 service providers, AIMS is a premier choice for discerning customers. AIMS is also crucial in TIME’s push to offer enhanced services, which range from data recovery to cloud computing.
In 2012, TIME was accorded the prestigious Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF) certification, making it one of just 47 international firms to win recognition for the performance, interoperability and reliability of its network. TIME's compliance with global standards ensures a link-up to any telecommunications network in the world.

TIME's 100% fibre optic network, regional wholesale bandwidth nodes, stakes in international submarine cable systems, and carrier-neutral data centres mean TIME is able to deliver a comprehensive suite of telecommunications solutions to meet fast-growing and rapidly-changing demand for connectivity.
2.0              HACKMAN AND OLDHAM JOB CHARACTERISTIC MODEL

How can jobs be enriched? What elements of a job need to be enriched for it to produce desired outcomes? J. Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham (1980) developed a job characteristics approach to job enrichment. The model is based on the assumption that jobs can be designed not only to help workers get enjoyment from their jobs but also to help workers feel that they are doing meaningful and valuable work. Specifically, the model identifies five core job characteristics that help create three critical psychological states, leading, in turn, to several personal and work outcomes (see Figure 1).
FIGURE 1: Job Enrichment Model




2.1              Components of the Model
The five core job characteristics are skill variety, task identity, task significance,
autonomy, and job feedback. Let’s examine each one of these more closely.
Skill variety. Skill variety is the degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities and involves the use of a number of different skills and talents of the employee. Jobs that are high in skill variety are seen by employees as: more challenging because of the range of skills involved; relieve monotony that results from repetitive activity; and gives employees a greater sense of competence. For example, an administrative assistant with high skill variety may have to perform many different tasks (e.g., schedule meetings, make airline and hotel reservations, do research, prepare written reports, and meet with customers).

Task identity. Task identity is the degree to which a job requires completion of a “whole” and identifiable piece of work—that is, doing a job from beginning to end with a visible outcome. When employees work on a small part of the whole, they are unable to identify any finished product with their efforts. They cannot feel any sense of completion or responsibility for the whole product. However, when tasks are broadened to produce a whole product or an identifiable part of it, then task identity has been established. For example, dress designers will have high task identity if they do everything related to making the whole dress (e.g., measuring the client, selecting the fabric, cutting and sewing the dress, and altering it to fit the customer).
Task significance. Task significance is the degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives of other people, whether those people are in the immediate organization or in the external environment. For example, medical researchers working on a cure for a terminal disease most likely recognize the importance of their work to society. Even more modest contributions to an organization can be recognized as being important to the extent that employees understand the role of their jobs to the overall mission of the company. The point is that employees should believe they are doing something important in their organization or society, or both.
Autonomy. Autonomy is the degree to which the job provides substantial freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in doing the work. It is considered fundamental in building a sense of responsibility in employees. Although most employees are willing to work within the broad constraints of an organization, employees want a certain degree of freedom. Autonomy has become very important to people in the workplace. For example, a salesperson is considered to be highly autonomous by scheduling his or her own work day and deciding on the most effective approach to use for each customer without supervision.
Job feedback. Job feedback is the degree to which carrying out the work activities required by the job provides the individual with direction and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance. Feedback can be positive or negative, but it is best when it is balanced appropriately. Feedback should occur frequently rather than be delayed until the annual evaluation meeting. The only way employees can make adjustments in their performance is to know how they are performing now, not later. Feedback can come directly from the job itself, or it can be provided verbally by management or other employees. For example, salespersons receive information regularly about how many contacts they make per day or week and the monetary value of sales made.

As shown in the model (Figure 1), these core job characteristics have important effects on various critical psychological states. For example, skill variety, task identity, and task significance together contribute to a person’s experienced meaningfulness of the work. Jobs that provide a great deal of autonomy are said to contribute to a person’s experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work. When they have the freedom to decide what to do and how to do it, employees feel more responsible for the results. Finally, job feedback is said to give employees knowledge of the actual results of work activities. When a job is designed to provide employees with information about the effects of their actions in the workplace, they are better able to develop an understanding of how well they have performed—and such knowledge improves their effectiveness.
The job characteristics model indicates that the three critical psychological states affect various personal and work outcomes—namely, people’s internal work motivation, growth satisfaction, general job satisfaction, and work effectiveness. The higher the experienced meaningfulness of work; experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work; and knowledge of the actual results of work activities, the more positive the personal and work outcomes will be. When employees perform jobs that incorporate high levels of the five core job characteristics, they should feel highly motivated, be highly satisfied with their jobs, and perform work effectively.
Based on the Hackman and Oldham job characteristic model above this assignment explores the influence of the model to TIME dotCom Berhad (TIME) operation and their employees. This assignment also will identify and assessing the Core Job Dimension (CJD) to measure the level that presents in the TIME’s daily operation and their workers.














3.0              IDENTIFICATION OF CORE JOB DIMENSION AND ASSESMENT

The Network Divison of TIME dotCom Berhad (TIME) consists of full time employee groups ranging from a manager, network engineers, technicians and assistant technicians. Even though there is not a large pool of employees present in this division, the author finds it interesting and important to identify and assess CJD in the working environment. We will analyze the presence of CJD according to the different group of employees respectively.

a)      Network Engineers
The engineers are responsible for the main Remote Access Server, routers and health and safety aspects of distribution frame. They ensure that these services performed effectively and efficiently during the company’s projects. The role includes the design and maintenance of switches, routers and other networking devices, the distribution of internet and LAN and the provision of power supply.

Skill Variety
·         Designing the layout of network topography, routers and networking systems.
·         Mathematical, Technical, Computer Science, Creativity skills including physics.
·         Report writing skills and making presentations & attending meetings with clients.
·         Problem-solving skills and analytical thinking.
Task Identity
Organize and oversee the construction, operation and maintenance of mechanical and process plant and installations, establish programs for the coordination of manufacturing activities. Coordinate and oversee each and every task in completing jobs.
Task Significance
The engineer appreciates his job in generating, transmitting and using the internet that powers the world.
Autonomy
·         Establish work measurement and analyze work samples to develop standards for labor utilization.
·         Judgment and Decision Making in considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
Feedback
Direct and clear information from the job about the effectiveness of his performance from the manager and clients.


b)     Technicians
Technicians in TIME dotCom Berhad assist in engineering research, design, manufacture, construction, operation and maintenance of networking, manufacturing equipment, mechanical installations and facilities. They prepare drawings, plans and designs for network engineering work under the direction of the engineer. They also responsible in selecting tools and equipment, assembling and installing new and modified routers, switches, access point (AP) and maintaining the fiber facilities.

Skill Variety
·         Design techniques, tools, and principals involved in installment of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
·         Skills in machines and tools, including their designs, repair, and maintenance.
·         Skills in methods and the tools involved in the construction or repair of routers, switches, or other networking devices.
Task Identity
·         Fully assist and involve throughout the construction, operation and maintenance of installation networking devices. Produces a final set of accurate drawings for each stage of the production process.
Task Significance
·         Technicians fill the gap between the significant tasks performed by engineers and assistant technician.
·         Their part is essential to complete any work carried out by the company.
Autonomy
·         Consult with engineers the best way to develop and plan a design, and once the design has been created, independently create the drawings that engineer use as reference when developing a network topography.
·         Also undertake some basic administrative work such as creating and updating lists of parts without direct instructions.
Feedback
Direct and clear information from the job about the effectiveness of his performance from the manager and engineer.


c.   Assistant Technicians
Assistant Technicians in TIME dotCom Berhad does odd jobs such as cleaning, jointing, repairing and maintain cables, grounds and facilities. Works like fixing any safety hazards, putting together equipment, installing small networking devices and Wi-Fi as well as doing minor cable management and spraying also done by these assistant technicians. They also maintain work records; operates trucks and related cable maintenance equipment; keeps tools and equipment in clean and safe working conditions; responds to emergency calls after normal duty hours. They often assist technicians in completing given tasks successfully.

Skill Variety
·         Physically capable of moving cables and equipment
·         Cable management, jointing, fiber splicing, spraying and electrical skills
·         Using hand and power tools in a safe and effective manner
Task Identity
·         Inspect cables, fibers, and cooper, check quality levels, replace jointer, and perform other maintenance actions, following checklists.
·         Perform routine preventive maintenance to ensure that cables continue to run smoothly, networking devices operate efficiently, and the physical condition of network topography does not deteriorate.
Task Significance
·         On call to respond to emergency issues like power failures, broken cables, breakdown etc.
·         Respond immediately to fire alarm systems; disengage electrical, water, or gas systems to protect devices and property.
Autonomy
·         Plan and lay out repair work using diagrams, drawings, blueprints, maintenance manuals, and schematic diagrams.

·         Prioritizes repair requests and plans work to ensure necessary parts are available and tasks are completed quickly and efficiently.
v  (Subject to approval from superiors)
Feedback
Direct and clear information from the job about the effectiveness of his performance from the manager, engineer and technician.



4.0             RECOMMENDATIONS IN IMPROVING CORE JOB DIMENSION WITHIN TIME BERHAD WORKERS

Upon identifying and assessing the levels of CJD, CPS and PWO according to Hackman and Oldham’s The Job Characteristics Model, this paper will provides a few recommendations that can be achieved for TIME dotCom Berhad. These recommendations are to improve CJD of the group of workers in order to increase their CPS.

4.1              Skill Variety
Job Rotation – the company must take measures to enable workers the opportunity to use a variety of skills, and perform different kinds of work. The most common way to do this is through job rotation. Engineers, technicians and handyman must be moved through a variety of jobs that allow them to learn different skills and acquire different experiences. This can be very motivating, especially to these people who are in jobs that are very repetitive.

4.2              Task Identity
Combine Tasks - Work activities should be combined to provide jobs that are more challenging and complex. Task identity can be improved because engineers, technicians and assistant technicians will involve in a job through from start to finish. This allows them to understand the work seem more meaningful and important. Expanding their roles gives them responsibility for the entire process and let them experience meaningfulness towards their work. This state will lead to high quality work performance from them.

4.3              Task Significance
Implement Participative Management - The Company may permit specialists and professionals to partake in choice making and get included in arranging of undertaking endeavors. This is a great approach to make them understand that their info is vital. It can work in such little organization, with a chief/manager who holds a nearby and immediate correspondence with all the representatives. Helping the association's general business objectives can give representatives a clearer feeling of their part (e.g., how their work fits into the greater picture) and the essentialness and significance of their work to business objectives.

4.4              Feedback
Natural/Emphasize Need For Growth - The administration ought to guarantee that the aftereffects of work done are precisely encouraged once more to workers and profoundly obvious therefore permitting unhindered sentiment. The extent that this would be possible this sentiment ought to be a characteristic, on-going a piece of the employment not the sort which is given by a predominant in a vocation evaluation. Attention ought to be put on expanding the open doors for development. These change starting with one worker then onto the next so the procedure ought to be organized to incorporate data from the single person.

Focus more on leveraging employee’s strengths than trying to fix their weaknesses - At the point when offering sentiment to representatives, it’s just characteristic to need to say components of a worker's execution that need some change. A  better approach to TIME dotCom Berhad is to take a gander at the ranges where representatives are exceeding expectations to discover why they are performing so well in that specific errand, and evaluating how that might be connected to the piece of their work they are experiencing issues with. This will permit the organization to help their representatives to figure out how to utilize their qualities crosswise over diverse zones, while picking up a finer thankfulness for what parts of their work will oblige the assistance of their associates for them to finish the errand. It's critical to recall that the open door for development for workers lies not in tending to their shortcomings, yet on building their capacity to help their current qualities.


5.0              CONCLUSIONS

Job enrichment is a job-design strategy for enhancing job content by building into it more motivating potential. Expanding on the work of Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham provide an explicit framework for enriching jobs. Based on their own work and the work of others, they developed a job characteristics model. In particular, the model specifies that enriching certain elements of jobs alters people’s psychological states in a manner that enhances their work effectiveness.

As evidenced by this study using Hackman and Oldham’s Job Characteristics Model, Core Job Dimension influence employee’s Critical Psychological States and these factors ultimately lead to Personal and Work Outcomes of employees. Job satisfaction can contribute to multiple organizational gains and has been associated with increased internal work motivation, quality performance and low absenteeism or turnover. This ultimately benefits the organization such as CBM Engineering Services in terms of excellent performance and increased productivity.  

2925 WORDS
REFERENCES

Hackman, J.R. And Lee, M.D. (1979), ‘‘Redesigning work: a strategy for change” Studies in Productivity, Work in America Institute.

Hackman, J.R. And Oldham, G.R. (1975), ‘‘Development of the job diagnostic survey” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 60, pp. 159-70.

Hackman, J.R. And Oldham, G.R. (1976), ‘‘Motivation through the design of work: test of a theory” Organizational Behaviour and Human Performance, Vol. 15, pp. 250-79.

Dean, J. W., & Snell, S. A. (1991). Integrated manufacturing and job design: Moderating
effects of organizational inertia. Academy of Management Journal, 34(4)776-804.


Grant, A. M. (2008). The significance of task significance: Job performance effects,
relational mechanisms, and boundary conditions. Journal of Applied Psychology,
93, 108-124








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